Framework for Dredged Material Management
pathway testing and evaluation does not yield a definitive determination,
however, risk assessment may be employed explicitly to reach a factual
determination (USEPA 1998; Moore, Bridges and Cura 1998).
Design of a testing program for the sediment to be dredged depends on the
pathways of concern for the alternative being evaluated. Protocols have been developed
to evaluate contaminant pathways of concern and consider the unique nature of dredged
material and the physicochemical conditions of each disposal site under consideration.
The testing guidelines that have been developed jointly by the USEPA and
USACE incorporate a tiered approach and scientifically based decision process that uses
only the level of testing necessary to provide the technical information needed to assess
the potential chemical and biological effects of the proposed disposal activity. Detailed
testing procedures for evaluation of ocean disposal under the MPRSA are found in the
Ocean Testing Manual (USEPA/USACE 1991), while detailed testing procedures for
evaluation of placement in U.S. waters under the CWA are found in the Inland Testing
Manual (USEPA/USACE 1998). The Upland Testing Manual (USACE 2003) provides
detailed procedures for evaluation of dredged material proposed for disposal at CDFs.
Other relevant procedures are available (Francingues et al. 1985; Lee et al. 1991). Testing
and evaluations for specific contaminant pathways for open-water and confined-disposal
alternatives is discussed in more detail in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively.
3.5.5 Evaluate Management Actions or Control Measures to Minimize
In cases where results of tests or assessments indicate that the MPRSA impact
Criteria or CWA Guidelines for a given pathway will not be met, management actions
should be considered to reduce potential environmental impacts (33 CFR 335-338;
Francingues et al. 1985; Lee et al. 1991; Cullinane et al. 1986). Management actions or
control measures may be considered for physical and/or contaminant impacts.
Possible controls for open-water alternatives include operational modifications,
use of submerged discharge, treatment, lateral containment, and capping or contained
aquatic disposal. Possible controls for confined (diked) disposal include operational
modifications, treatment, and various site controls (e.g., covers and liners). Descriptions
of management and control measures for open-water and confined alternatives and
procedures for assessing site-specific effectiveness are given in Chapters 4 and 5,
The effectiveness of management controls for contaminated sediments must be
carefully considered, since no disposal option and/or management action or control
measure is without risk. When considering the use of management actions or controls, the
following factors must be considered:
Probability of success of a given control.
Monitoring required to confirm the effectiveness of the control.