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Framework for Dredged Material Management
May 2004
Evaluation of Landfill Performance model (Schroeder et al. 1984) have also been used to
estimate water balance (budget) for dredged material CDFs (Palermo et al. 1989;
Francingues and Averett 1988). Additional procedures and computer estimating tools are
also available to estimate attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface (Schroeder and
Aziz 2003; Aziz and Schroeder 1999a; Aziz and Schroeder 1999b; Schroeder et al.
1994a; Schroeder et al. 1994b; Schroeder et al. 2004). Source terms for partitioning
analysis and attenuation calculations can be found in Streile et al. (1996).
If leachate concentrations exceed applicable criteria, or criteria are not available
and effects cannot be shown to be acceptable using risk assessment (USEPA 1998; Cura,
Wickwire and McArlde in preparation), controls for leachate must be considered. These
may include proper site specification to minimize potential movement of water into
aquifers, dewatering to reduce leachate generation, chemical modifications to retard or
immobilize contaminants, physical barriers such as clay and synthetic liners,
capping/vegetating the surface to reduce leachate production, or collection and treatment
of the leachate.
5.3.7 Plant and Animal Uptake
Some contaminants can be bioaccumulated in plant tissue and become further
available to the food chain. There are few reference values available specifically for
assessing the potential for adverse plant or animal uptake from dredged material. Criteria
established for sewage sludge are sometimes used, but apply to a limited number of
metals, and are based on conservative assumptions that are not directly applicable to a
disposal area. A computerized screening program has been developed which compares
measured sediment concentrations to available reference values. The
Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extract test has also been utilized to provide
a simplified assessment of the potential for plant and animal uptake (Lee et al. 1978;
Folsom, Lee, and Bates 1981; Lee, Folsom, and Engler 1982; Lee, Folsom, and Bates
1983; U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station 1987, USACE 2003). A
computerized program, the Plant Uptake Program (PUP) uses the results of the DTPA
extraction procedure to predict bioaccumulation of metals from freshwater dredged
material by freshwater plants and compare the results to a background or reference
sediment or soil (Folsom and Houck 1990).
If the contaminants are identified in the dredged material at levels, which cause a
concern, a more extensive evaluation may be performed based on a plant or animal
bioassay. Appropriate plant or animal species are grown in either a flooded or dry soil
condition using the appropriate experimental procedure and laboratory or field test
apparatus (Folsom and Lee 1985; Simmers, Rhett, and Lee 1986; American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM) 1997; USACE 2003). Contaminant uptake is then
measured by chemical analysis of the biomass (tissue). Growth, phytotoxicity, and
bioaccumulation of contaminants are monitored during the growth period in the case of
the plant bioassay. An index species is also grown to serve as a mechanism to extrapolate
the results to allow use of other databases, such as metals uptake by agricultural food
crops. This indexing procedure provides information upon which a decision can be made

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