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Page Title: Logistical Considerations for Beneficial Use
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Framework for Dredged Material Management
May 2004
beneficial uses. However, fine-grained sediments are also suitable for some beneficial
uses, such as wetland habitat development, soil creation and improvement and
construction blocks. Testing procedures to determine the suitability of dredged material
for beneficial uses is provided in Winfield and Lee (1999). Dredged material that is
contaminated may be useful for beneficial uses if some treatment is applied to reduce
contamination. Low-cost treatment alternatives include bioremediation and
phytoremediation. Procedures for determining the suitability of dredged material for
these remediation alternatives are provided by Fredrickson et al. (1999) and Price and
Lee (1999).
6.4 Logistical Considerations for Beneficial Use
A number of procedural and logistic factors can also greatly influence the
feasibility of specific beneficial use proposals. Examples of logistic considerations
include: distance of the proposed beneficial use site from the dredging project; site
accessibility; required equipment to dredge the channel (e.g., hopper dredge in high-
energy approach channels) versus equipment required to efficiently transport the material
to the site (e.g., quite often a pipeline dredge); material rehandling requirements; size of
project versus intended beneficial use and size of disposal site (e.g., a 30-in. dredge
required to efficiently move large volumes of shoal material may very quickly
overwhelm a small wetland restoration site); and timing of the beneficial use need (e.g.,
beach nourishment) versus maintenance dredging needs.
Less understood, but perhaps one of the greatest potential constraints to many
potential beneficial use proposals is what may collectively be termed real estate
considerations. These include state, county, and local land-use zoning laws (which can be
extremely variable and complex); issues of ownership of the material (e.g., Submerged
Lands Act); whether disposal sites are fee-owned or disposal is through easements; and
the closely related issue of sponsor requirements for acquiring and managing disposal
sites as contained in the project-specific authorizing legislation. A typical example would
be disposal sites acquired through easement by the project sponsor under his assigned
responsibility within the authorizing project legislation. Ownership of the material may
well reside with the landowner, not the Federal government or project sponsor, which
could eliminate further consideration of that site for certain beneficial uses. In some
cases, such constraints might be overcome if the sponsored landowners are willing to
renegotiate the real estate agreements. In other cases, however, specific Federal and/or
state/local legislation would be required to overcome such constraints.
6.5 Determination of Environmental Suitability
Generally speaking, highly contaminated sediments will not normally be suitable
for most proposed beneficial uses and particularly for proposed habitat
creation/restoration projects. Conversely, if the material is exempt from testing (e.g., 40
CFR 230.60) or testing indicates the material is suitable for open-water disposal, that
material would likely be deemed suitable for a wide range of beneficial use applications
from the standpoint of contamination. Most beneficial uses involve either open-water or

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