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Framework for Dredged Material Management
May 2004
Effects associated with volatilization of contaminants are evaluated based on
estimated exposure to selected receptors, and appropriate inhalation reference doses
(Myers, Schroeder and Estes in preparation (b)). Risk assessment may also be employed
in assessing the effects associated with exposure (Cura, Wickwire, and McArlde in
5.3.9 Particulate Transport
Airborne transport of particulates from the surface of a CDF is also potentially of
concern. Exposure to contaminants may occur through inhalation of fine particles or
from direct contact with or ingestion of particles re-deposited in areas off-site. Tools to
quantify particulate transport are not well developed. Qualitative analysis of expected
surface conditions may identify periods when particulate transport will be of concern;
primarily when the material surface is dry, net precipitation is low, and prevailing winds
are sufficient to effect transport. Vegetation or surface covers may provide effective
control of particulate transport, although implementation may be logistically difficult due
to the size of the areas involved and the limited weight bearing capacity of the material
while it is still consolidating.
5.3.10 Need for Contaminant Controls
If the analysis of contaminant pathways and associated testing indicates that the
standards or Guidelines, as appropriate, are met, the CDF alternative is environmentally
acceptable from the standpoint of contaminant effects for that pathway. If the applicable
standards or Guidelines are not met, contaminant control measures can be considered to
reduce impacts to acceptable levels.
Control measures to minimize contaminant impacts may include operational
modification, treatment, site controls (e.g., liners or covers), and other site management
actions. These control measures are described in paragraph 5.4. If the control measures
are determined to be effective, then the alternative is environmentally acceptable from the
standpoint of contaminants. If there are no effective control measures for one or more
pathways, then disposal at the CDF under consideration should be eliminated.
5.4 Evaluation of Management Actions and Contaminant Control Measures
for CDFs
In cases where evaluations of direct physical impacts, site capacity, or
contaminant pathways indicate impacts will be unacceptable when conventional CDF
disposal techniques are used, management actions and contaminant control measures may
be considered. It should be noted that a CDF is neither a conventional wastewater
treatment facility nor a conventional solids-handling facility. The dredged materials
placed in CDFs typically contain 10 to 50 percent solids; therefore, an effective CDF
must incorporate features of both wastewater treatment and solids-handling facilities in a
combination that is unlike either (Averett et al. 1990).

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