Framework for Dredged Material Management
Descriptions of the commonly used management actions and contaminant
controls are given in the following paragraphs. Additional guidance on selection of
management actions and contaminant controls for CDFs is available (USACE 1983, 1987
and in preparation; Francingues et al. 1985; Cullinane et al. 1986; Averett et al. 1990).
These references contain testing procedures and criteria needed for evaluating and
selecting appropriate contaminant control measures for CDFs, and should be consulted
for additional detailed discussions of the attributes of the various technologies.
Management actions may include managing or modifying the proposed placement
operation, modification of the CDF design or geometry, treatment of effluent, runoff, or
leachate discharges, and physical management such as covers, liners, or barrier systems
(USACE 2003). Recent references relevant to application of management actions at
CDFs include USEPA (1994); National Research Council (1997); Permanent
International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC) (1996 and 2003); Palermo
and Averett (2000).
5.4.1 Management Actions for Physical Impacts and Storage Capacity
A number of management techniques have been developed and used that can
eliminate or minimize adverse direct physical impacts resulting from construction of
CDFs. These include:
Management of the CDF for dewatering the dredged material, thereby
reducing the volume of material and reducing the need for larger or additional
sites (USACE 1987).
Treatment of effluent to remove additional solids and reduce turbidity of the
discharge (USACE 1987).
Implementation of Disposal Area Reuse Management involving removal of
material from the CDF for some beneficial use, thereby restoring the capacity
of the CDF (USACE 1987; Lee 1999; Olin-Estes and Palermo 2000a; Olin-
Estes and Palermo 2000b; Olin-Estes 2000; Lee 2000; Spaine et al. 2001; Lee
2001; Olin-Estes et al. 2002b).
Mitigation to include creation of alternative habitat and designated resource
Modification of site through landscaping and screening to improve site
aesthetics and features to protect cultural resources.
5.4.2 Treatment of Liquid Streams
The objective of liquid streams controls is to remove residual contaminants from
the liquids produced as discharges from a CDF operation such as:
Effluent discharges from active filling operations.
Water produced from dewatering or treatment processes.